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ADC-I Business Fundamentals & Structures Syllabus

ADC-I  Business Fundamentals & Structures Syllabus
ADC-I  Business Fundamentals & Structures Syllabus

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The Islamia University of Bahawalpur

Course Outlines

Associated Degree in Commerce (Specialization in Accounting & Finance)



Course Name

Business Fundamentals & Structures

Course Code

ADC 01102

Credit Hours



Not required

Follow Up

Objectives to achieve

·         Toexamine and analyse the field of Business as a viable career.

·         To explore the forms of business ownership.

·         To understand the areas of production, human resource, management, marketing, accounting and information technology.

·         To understand and analyse financial information, financial statements, and the process of accounting.

·         To understand money and financial Institutions.

·         To examine and analyse the global marketplace and the business competitive environment.

·         To examine and analyse the area of Entrepreneurship.

Teaching Strategies


  1. Lectures
  2. Hand outs
  3. Group discussions
  4. Class-room presentations
  5. Projects and term paper
  6. Quizzes

Vii. Case study, reading assignment

Assessment Criteria


 (Assessment by respective College)

Final Examination

(Assessment by the Islamia University of Bahawalpur)

40 %

60 %

Quizzes and Tests, Assignment and Presentations, Viva, Attendance, Class Participations and discipline etc.

Written Paper

Written Paper


Weekly Lecture Plan/Syllabus





Introduction to business

·         Introduction of Business and its objectives(Survival, profit maximization, growth, provide a service, customer service, sales maximization, social responsibility)

·         Types of business enterprise (Service, manufacturing, merchandizing, resource based, not for profit, public and private)

·         Legal Forms of Business (Sole trader ship, partnership, company, cooperative society, franchising, multi nations)


Business environment and Business functions

·         Business environment(Features, internal environment i.e. value system, mission vision and objectives, management structure and nature; external environment i.e. Micro environment: suppliers, customers, market intermediaries, financers, public; Macro environment economic environment, social environment, political environment, legal environment, Technical environment)

·         Business functions: Production, HRM, Sales and Marketing, Research and Development, Customer service, Finance and accounts, Administration and IT

·         Business organization by type: Global, National, Regional, Local



·         Factors of Production, Determinants of Scale of Production

·         Steps in Production Process(Purchasing, Processing, Grading, Quality Control, ISO certification)

·         Describing ways to improve productivity through training, capital investment, investment in technology, use of just in time inventory system



·         Core Marketing concepts(needs ,wants and demand; products and services; value satisfaction and quality; exchange, transactions and relationships; markets)

·         7 P’s of Marketing (product, price, place, promotion, process, people, physical evidence)

·         Role and impact of marketing on business



·         Functions of management (Planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling)

·         Levels of management and Managerial skills(conceptual, human, technical) efficiency and effectiveness in management; Styles (democratic, autocratic, laisez faire)

·         Best Practices in business management (engage workers, reward efforts, be vulnerable, stay committed, seek clarity, create cultural cohesiveness, focus team efforts, holding regular meetings)



·         Functions and Scope of HRM (1. Recruitment, Selection and introduction, 2. Personnel administration, 3. Training and development, 4. Performance and reward management, 5. Talent management, 6. Succession and career planning, labor relations, HR planning)

·         Challenges to HRM

·         Role of HR executive (Executive, facilitator, consultant, auditor)



·         Meaning, nature and significance of business finance. Financial Needs of business (Fixed capital requirement, working capital requirement)

·         Functions of Finance (planning and budgeting, resource allocation, operating , monitoring and safe guarding, evaluating and reporting)

·         Classification of sources of funds: on the basis of period(Long term, medium term, short term), on the basis of ownership(Owner’s funds, borrowed funds), on the basis of source of generation (internal, external) including equity shares, retained earnings, preference shares, debentures, loan from financial institutions, loans from banks, public deposits, lease financing, trade credit, factoring, commercial papers





Business risk and insurance

·         Risk and its classification (pure, speculative, particular, fundamental, financial) Methods of handling risk ( avoiding, controlling, accepting, transferring)

·         Insurance and its importance both conventional and taqaful

·         Legal principals of insurance (indemnity, insurable interest, subrogation, utmost good faith, adhesion, waiver and estoppels)


Ethics and social responsibility in business

·         Business ethics and their importance, difference between law and ethics,  Laws that govern corporate ethics ( Work place safety, anti discrimination issue, harassment, accessibility issue, environmental)

·         Kinds of Social Responsibility ( Economic, legal, ethical, discretionary)



·         Functions of an entrepreneur (innovation, assumption of risk, research, development of management skills, overcoming resistance to change, catalyst to economic development)

·         Entrepreneurial Process 1. Idea generation (Germination, preparation, incubation) 2. Feasibility Study, illumination, verification.

·         Essential qualities required for an entrepreneur. Factors affecting business success.


Important Institutes in Pakistan

·         SECP

·         Stock Exchange

·         Chamber of Commerce and Industry

·         Trade Development Authority

·         SMEDA


International Trade

·         Why nations trade with each other? Globalization and its importance

·         Process of international trade

·         International trade barriers (Physical, political, economic barriers)


Pakistan and Global Market

·         Major Imports and exports of Pakistan

·         Global Trading Partners of Pakistan

·         CPEC a game changer



·         What is e-commerce? Benefits of E-

·         Business Categories of e-commerce (B2C, B2B,B2G, G2G, C2C,G2B, G2C,C2B)

·         Ethical, social and legal issues in e-commerce






Primary Recommended Book

1.  Exploring Business for the 21stCentury, Liepner, Magnan,

Wasserman; McGraw-Hill Ryerson, ISBN-13: 9780070891586; 2001

2.  The World of Business 5thEdition, Wilson, Notman, Guest; Nelson

Education, ISBN-13: 9780176337513; 2007

3.  Management by Stephan P. Robbins Latest Edition


Additional Books

Websites, Videos, Brochures, Articles discussing contents of course outline.


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